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Assessment of the functional state of the cardiovascular system of individuals involved in physical education and sports

Anatoly D. Fesyun, Aleksey V. Datiy, Maxim Yu. Yakovlev, Oleg B. Chernyakhovsky National Medical Research Center for Rehabilitation and Balneology, Moscow, Russia

Objective: evaluation of the hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow in athletes of youth age, engaged in cyclical and team sports. Materials and methods: a survey was conducted with the participation of athletes of the junior level (97 people), who were divided into 2 groups: 47 young men (age 12 [12; 13] years, min – 11 years; max – 14 years), who were professionally involved in ski racing (1st group) and a group of athletes involved in game sports (football players) (2nd group, n=50) (age was 12 [11; 13] years,min – 11 years; max – 14 years). The study evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of the blood flow (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, minute volume of blood flow, cardiac index) and echocardioscopy. Results: the differences between the groups of skiers and football players have been proved: AD syst. (102 [88; 111] and 109 [94; 122], p <0.05 by the Mann-Whitney test), BP. Diast.(68 [59; 69] and 77 [64; 82], p <0.05 for the Mann-Whitney test), as well as the IOC (5.71 [4.38; 8.83] and 5.09 [3, 84; 7.84], p <0.05 by the Mann-Whitney test). In an echocardioscopic study, the analysis showed the following differences: the diameter of the pulmonary artery in skiers was 1.87 [1.78, 1.9] cm and 1.94 [1.9, 1.97] cm in football players. At the same time, the maximum pressure gradient in the descending aorta (PGf.) was 9.88 [9.24; 10.22] mm Hg. and 8.9 [8.16; 9.25] mm Hg. accordingly (p <0.05 by the Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions: as a result, athletes involved in cyclic sports have a high degree of adaptation of the cardiovascular system to physical stress compared to athletes involved in game sports.

Keywords: 
hemodynamic characteristics of the blood flow, adaptation of the cardiovascular system, sports medicine