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RISK FACTORS IN FITNESS PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES

G. A. MAKAROVA(1), E. E. ACHKASOV(2), S. M. CHERNUKHA(1), P. I. EVSTIGNEEV(1), S. YU. BELOGUBOVA(2) 1-KUBAN STATE UNIVERSITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SPORT AND TOURISM, KRASNODAR, RUSSIA 2-SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA
Objective: to identify the dominant groups of risk factors when practicing fitness physical activities.
Materials and methods: analysis of 110 websites of local fitness centres, workout facilities, sports clubs, wellness studios, dancing schools, fight clubs, Yoga centres etc.
Results: the analysis revealed that modern fitness industry involves a wide range of additional risk factors (scarcely ever considered) in addition to conventional reasons for potential medical problems with enhanced physical activity. The focus points are as follows: lack of medical permission to participation in sports activities; specific motivation of fitness-goers in the vast majority of cases; progressive convergence of strength fitness programs with particular strength sports; wide use of a variety of means and methods (typically in strength programs) classified as doping; exercise loads along with healthpromoting activities (each characterized by distinct physiological price); frequent combination of physical exercise with pathogenic nutrition and water consumption violation; etc.
Conclusions: only a few trends of the analyzed fitness programs were considered to be actually health-improving ones (with correct biomechanics and competent dosing of exercises). Realization of other programs may have a number of negative consequences, especially for persons with border-line states of health. Some of trends in fitness are in greatest possible convergence with professional commercial sport where health of athletes occupies one of the last places in the list of priorities. Consideration of the identified risk factors dictates the need for a broad range of measures to prevent emergencies and sudden deaths in amateur athletes.
Keywords: 
fitness; fitness program; risk factors; physical loads; health problems.