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THE PERFORMANCE OF PARA NORDIC SKIING ATHLETES WITH PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN THE «STANDING» CATEGORY

I. V. PASTUKHOVA(¹, ²), L. V. SAPHONOV(3) 1-FEDERAL SPORTS MEDICINE CENTER OF THE FEDERAL MEDICAL BIOLOGICAL AGENCY OF RUSSIA, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 2-SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY (SECHENOV UNIVERSITY), MOSCOW, RUSSIA ³-SCIENCE CENTER FOR PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT, MOSCOW, RUSSIA
Objective: to analyze changes of health indicators of athletes with physical impairments in Para cross-country skiing and Para biathlon, depending on the period of training, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the recovery period on the basis of the results obtained.
Materials and methods: 11 Para cross-country skiers and Para biathletes, members of the Russian national team (mean age of 29,5±2,6 years) of «standing» category were examined. The step-up test was used to perform the ultimate muscular work to «failure» on the running treadmill HP Cosmos. Duration of each stage was 3 min, the load capacity of men and women – 100W - 150W - 200W - 250W or more (web speed of 9.0 - 10.2 - 12.8 - 14.4 km/h and etc) at each stage, lifting blade angle – 1C. VO2max was carried out by a gas analyzer – Oxycon Pro (ERICH JAEGER GmbH, Germany).
Results: in the early precompetitive period of 2013 the expected growth of performance was observed. A decrease in the indexes of aerobic capacity of athletes indicated a correctly designed training schedule in accordance with basic principles of training loads increasing. The analysis of the recovery in the post-Paralympic period of 2014 showed a significant decrease in the overall duration of the test, a deeper decline in the functional reserves of athletes in comparison with the pre-competition period, and lack of dynamics in indicators characterizing aerobic capacity. These changes revealed an inefficiency of the recovery post-Paraympic period despite the increase in the VO2max values.
Conclusions: the identified indicators pointed at incomplete recovery of cross-country skiers and biathlets in the «standing» category. Registered pronounced cumulative training effect indicates the existing potential of cross-country skiers and biathletes with physical impairments to develop the fundamental characteristics of endurance sports.
Keywords: 
athletes with disabilities; Paralympics; physical performance; endurance; adaptation; training period; physical impairments.