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SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IN SPORTS: RISK FACTORS, NOSOLOGICAL FEATURES, PREVENTION STRATEGIES

L. S. KHODASEVICH (1,2), S. N. CHUPROVA (3), A. А. ABAKUMOV (4), A. F. HECHUMYAN (1) 1 -RESEARCH CENTRE OF BALNEOLOGY AND REHABILITATION OF FEDERAL MEDICAL BIOLOGICAL AGENCY OF RUSSIA, SOCHI, RUSSIA 2 -SOCHI STATE UNIVERSITY, SOCHI, RUSSIA 3 -RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHILDREN'S INFECTIONS OF FEDERAL MEDICAL BIOLOGICAL AGENCY OF RUSSIA, SAINT-PETERSBURG, RUSSIA 4 -FEDERAL MEDICAL BIOLOGICAL AGENCY OF RUSSIA, MOSCOW, RUSSIA
Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes are rare. According to data of different authors, incidence of SCD ranged from 0,4-0,6 to 2,6- 6,5 cases per year per 100,000 athletes. Though SCD is rare, its occurrence in athletes has a large emotional impact on the sports community. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. However, there are a number of other condition which can cause SCD: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, congenital abnormalities of coronary arteries, myocarditis, Long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Levi-Lenegra diseases, etc. Sudden cardiac death in younger athletes (<35 years) is commonly due to inherited cardiac conditions. SCD due to non-penetrating commotio thoracis is known as commotio cordis. The paper highlights two most common causes of the SCD: the electrophysiologic pathology of the heart and autopsy-negative death. Prevention of SCD associated with physical activity has three main areas: evaluation of individuals prior to athletic activity; proper use of screening and diagnostic tools for the cardiovascular evaluation of athletes; physical activity limitations for individuals with cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: 
sudden cardiac death; sport; athletes; risk factors; prevention.