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PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HYPOVENTILATION BREATHING ON THE CARDIORESPIRATORY AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS DURING MAXIMAL PHYSICAL WORK

N. A. FUDIN (1), S. YA. KLASSINA (1), YU. E. VAGIN (2), S. N. PIGAREVA (1) 1 -P.K. ANOKHIN INSTITUTE OF NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 2 -SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA

Objective: to study physiological effects of hypoventilation breathing on the person’s cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. Materials and methods: the study involved 13 healthy male volunteers aged from 18 to 22 years, regularly engaged in physical training. Each subject performed the maximal physical load test on the cycle ergometer (with a power of 120 W) twice. Between the first and second examination, the subjects were taught hypoventilation breathing during 30 days. During ergocycle test pneumogram, electrocardiogram and electromyogram were recorded. Also, the heart rate, breathing rate, respiratory minute volume, and length of waves and segments of the electrocardiogram, the amplitude and the number of turns of the electromyogram were evaluated. The breath-hold duration at inhalation, the blood pressure, and parameters of external respiration were measured before and after the physical load. The stroke volume, cardiac output, the Kerdo index were calculated. Before the physical test, the subjects’ emotional background was evaluated with a psychological questionnaire.
Results: the hypoventilation exercises for 30 days caused an increase in the heart rate, cardiac output, bronchial conduction and decrease in respiratory rate, respiratory minute volume, in the subjects during maximal physical work test. Signs of muscle fatigue (presented as a decrease in the amplitude and the number of turns of the electromyogram) emerged later. Reduction to normal physiological parameters occurred within 6 minutes.
Conclusions: respiratory hypoventilation increases the resistance to ventilation hypoxia and motor hypoxia, increases sympathetic effects, increases cardiac output, improves the oxygen utilization in tissues, increases the bronchial conductivity and optimizes the respiratory function, which ultimately leads to significant increasing of physical performance.
Keywords: 
physical training; maximal physical work; hypoventilation; hypoxia; physical performance.