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CALCIUM IS THE MOST IMPORTANT REGULATORY FACTOR OF HUMAN LIFE ACTIVITY IN SWIMMERS

A. D. VIKULOV, V. A. MARGAZIN, V. L. BOYKOV, D. V. KAUNINA YAROSLAVL STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY NAMED AFTER K.D. USHINSKY, YAROSLAVL, RUSSIA

Objective: to search for additional criteria of adaptation of athletes.
Materials and Methods: twelve elite athletes-swimmers were examined at the rest. The plasma levels of total calcium (colorimetric method) and ionized calcium (direct potentiometry using ion-selective electrodes of the analyzer «Microlyte 3+2») were studied. Determination of Na-K-ATPase activity was performed according to the method described by A. Kazennova et al. The following reagents were used: ATP-Na, tris, ouabain, Tween-20 («Sigma», USA), sucrose («Farmacia», Sweden), EDTA-Na4 («Reanai», Hungary), and others. The blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), parathyroid hormone (PTH), cortisol and testosterone were registered by ELISA using the analyzer and reagents of «Boehringer Mannheim» Immunodiagnostics ES 300 company (Germany). The «Anabolism Index» (AI, %) was calculated according to the formula: Testosterone / Cortisol × 100. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean red blood cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined on a hemocytometer VT 2100 (MWI, USA). The performance efficiency was tested on electromagnetic veloergometer «Ergometric 900» (Ergoline, Germany). The initial load of testing was 30 W, the gradient of power increasing – 15 W/min at a speed of 60-80 rev/min. The exercises were performed until overflowing with criteria of reducing in the frequency of pedaling below 50 rev/min. The maximum load power was fixed (W). The maximum oxygen consumption was detected with the help of a portable analyzer MetaMax 3B (Cortex, Germany).
Results: a significant number of correlations reflecting the physiological regulation mechanisms were revealed. Correlations between Ca++ and MCV (-0.70), hematocrit (-0.77), indicator of the maximum veloergomeric power load (-0.70), glucose concentration (0.97), cortisol (-0, 64), parathyroid hormone (0.92) were detected. Total Ca was associated with Anabolism Index (-0.58) and with parathyroid hormone (0.59).
Conclusions: there is a complex system of metabolism regulation with the active participation of calcium ions, thyroid hormones and cortisol in athletes at rest. The plasma level of total and ionized calcium can be recommended as one of the criteria of the functional state of power supply systems of the body, and its degree of fitness.
Keywords: 
athletes; swimmers; functional status; blood; plasma; red blood cells; ionized calcium; anabolism; hormones; correlation.