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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIPEDALISM (WALKING)

N. V. POLUKROV (1), E. E. ACHKASOV (2,3) 1 -«CENTER OF HUMAN RECONSTRUCTION» CLINIC, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 2 -SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 3 -SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FEDERAL MEDICAL BIOLOGICAL AGENCY OF RUSSIA, SVETLYE GORY, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA
This lecture opens a course of lectures «The fundamentals of bipedalism», submitted for publication in the journal «Sports Medicine: Research and Practice». The article discusses the formation of human bipedalism during anthropogenesis and the selection of bipedal manner of walking as the basis of walk. The background of the evolution of bipedal walking is described. The article discuses the relationship between the formation of speech and straightening of the human skeleton. The relevance between posture, movement, standing erect, communication, language and culture is reflected. Special attention is paid to the factors influencing the formation of the individual human walking as well as the differences in patient’s walking which are formed under different conditions. All this knowledge will help doctors to carry out the professional comprehensive examination and to develop an individual course of treatment.
Keywords: 
bipedality; bipedal locomotion; walking; theory of «walking-speech» body posture.