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CONSTITUTIONAL-TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNIOR ATHLETES (SWIMMERS AND ROWERS)

I. N. ZHUCHKOVA, E. V. HARLAM OV, N. M. POPOVA ROSTOV STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, ROSTOV-ON-DON, RUSSIA

Objective: : to evaluate the morphofunctional indexes of junior rowers and swimmers living in the South of Russia, defining their specialization, qualification and training in ontogeny levels.
Materials and Methods: 120 junior athletes (60 swimmers and 60 rowers), male sex, studied at the Rostov-on-Don Olympic Reserve school, were analyzed. Their somatotypes were defined by the R. N. Dorokhov and V. G. Petrukhin (1989) method of somatotyping. Comprehensive study of functional indicators as a physical efficiency, aerobic performance, strength and vegetative status was undertaken.
Results: rowers somatotype has its characteristics: macrosomy, microcorpulent, micromesomuscular, microsty and macromembrane. Swimmers somatotype has other characteristics: mesomacrosomy, microcorpulent, mesomuscular, microsty and macromembrane. Absolute physical efficiency of junior rowers was amounted of 1696±236 kg∙m/min; swimmers at the same age group have 1468±261 kg∙m/min. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly strong negative correlation of the functional parameters (physical efficiency, aerobic productivity) and the level of the athlete fat mass. Among junior rowers 67% of athletes with normotone, 33% of athletes with moderate vagotonia, among junior swimmers – 75% of athletes with normotone and 35% of athletes with moderate vagotonia were identified.
Conclusions: for selection and scientific prognostication, as well as in the training process in such kinds of sports, it is very important to consider the correlation of morphological and functional indexes in ontogenesis.
Keywords: 
somatotype; juniors; cyclic kinds of sports; physical efficiency; level of training.