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SYSTEM MECHANISMS OF PU RPOSFUL INC REASE OF BRETH -HOLDING DURING SPORTS ACTIVITIES

YU. YE. VAGUINE (1), I. Е. ZELENKOVA (2), N. A. FUDIN (2) 1 -SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 2 -ANOKHIN INSTITUTE OF NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA

Objective: to analyze the organization of system processes to achieve sports results in athletes with high physical endurance and athletes with high resistance to hypoxia. Materials and methods: 15 basketball players and 12 free-divers performed constant physical work on a cycle ergometer to failure in combination with increasing interrupted breath-holdings. Duration of the work, arterial oxygen saturation, the heart rate, and heart rate variability, were the parameters which characterized the tone of the autonomic nervous system.
Results: in the pre-start state for the basketball players the tone of the sympathetic nervous system was upgraded. In sporting activities, this tone continued to increase. At the same time the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system short-term increased. The arterial oxygen saturation was rapidly declining. Hypercapnia caused a rapid involuntary inspiration and sports activity termination. In the pre-start state for the free-divers the tone of the sympathetic nervous system was also upgraded. At sports activity the parasympathetic nervous system tone increased longer period. The arterial oxygen saturation decreased slowly. The increase of hypoxia resistance and slowing hypercapnia detained involuntary inhalation and prolonged sports activities.
Conclusions: there is worked out the model of functional processes ensured rapid involuntary inspiration for the basketball players and a maximum breath-holding for free-divers at interrupted breath-holdings with physical exertion.
Keywords: 
sports activities; breath-holding; heart rate; heart rate variability; arterial oxygen saturation; hypoxia; hypercapnia; free-divers.