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PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF THE IMPACT OF REGULAR BREATH-HOLDING ON THE BRAIN, CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

I. Е. ZELENKOVA INNOVATIVE CENTER OF THE RUSSIAN OLYMPIC COMMITTEE, MOSCOW, RUSSIA CENTRE OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, MOSCOW, RUSSIA
The record of holding the breath underwater in elite athletes-freedivers is currently 11 minutes 35 seconds (static breath-holding or static аpnea) and 255 meters (dynamic breath-holding or dynamic apnea). These achievements are essential in conditions of maintaining athlete’s consciousness within breath-holding. For this reason, many athletes strive to improve their results ensuring adequate security measures. It is known that prolonged breath-holding causes hypoxemia аnd hypercapnia, despite the decline in oxygen capture. How prolonged breath-holding influence on the brain, cardiovascular and respiratory system will be discussed in this review. Prolonged breath holding may lead to the loss of motor control and black out, cardiac arrhythmias and, due to the change of hydrostatic pressure, to lung barotrauma but the influence.
Keywords: 
freediving; breath-hold diving; cardiac risk; elite breath-hold divers; acute hypoxia; hypoxemia.