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INFLUENCE OF REGULAR EXERCISE ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN ACTIVE AND RETIRED ELITE ATHLETES

Е. V. MASHKOVSKIY (1), E. E. ACHKASOV (1), O. T. BOGOVA (2), D. O. VINNICHUK (1) 1 -SECHENOV FIRST MOSCOW STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 2 -RUSSIAN MEDICAL ACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 3 -SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY FMBA OF RUSSIA, SVETLYE GORY, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA
Years of regular physical activity increase the output of the cardiovascular system and lead to development of a normal (physiological) athlete’s heart. Bradycardia, cardiac hypertrophy, and arterial hypotension are three major characteristics of a normal athlete’s heart. Type, frequency, and duration of a physical activity are related to changes in parameters of cardiovascular system and in heart muscles. Excessive levels of physical activity leads to development of a pathologic athlete’s heart, negatively affects hearts metabolism, and increases the risk of both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis, which leads to development of an ischemic heart disease, is often found in elderly athletes. Autopsy studies have shown that even young athletes experience atherosclerosis. Slightly more than half of sudden deaths in all athletes were due to cardiovascular problems. Reports of stable angina and myocardial infarction in athletes of all ages hasincreased over past few years. Echocardiographic features and clinical outcomes of an ischemic heart disease in retired professional athletes are not well studied. Further studies are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation in elite athletes.
Keywords: 
sports medicine, sports cardiology, ischemic heart disease, echocardiography, myocardium, heart remodeling, atherosclerosis, stable angina, retired athletes, rehabilitation.